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The exosphere contains most of the satellites orbiting Earth.

Layers drawn to scale, objects within the layers are not to scale.

Aurorae shown here at the bottom of the thermosphere can actually form at any altitude in this atmospheric layer.

Atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft at an altitude of around 120 km (75 mi).

Several layers can be distinguished in the atmosphere, based on characteristics such as temperature and composition.

The concentration of water vapor (a greenhouse gas) varies significantly from around 10 ppm by volume in the coldest portions of the atmosphere to as much as 5% by volume in hot, humid air masses, and concentrations of other atmospheric gases are typically quoted in terms of dry air (without water vapor).

among which are the greenhouse gases, principally carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space.The Kármán line, at 100 km (62 mi), or 1.57% of Earth's radius, is often used as the border between the atmosphere and outer space.In general, air pressure and density decrease with altitude in the atmosphere.However, temperature has a more complicated profile with altitude, and may remain relatively constant or even increase with altitude in some regions (see the temperature section, below).Excluding the exosphere, the atmosphere has four primary layers, which are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere.

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