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Tertullian, writing at the end of the second, speaks of portions of Britain which the Romans had never reached being; by that time "subject to Christ"; and early Scots historians relate that Pope Victor, about A. He also founded there a famous monastery, whence saints and missionaries went out to preach; not only through the whole south of Scotland, but also in Ireland.

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It was thus that, drawing her inspiration from the great monasteries of Ireland, the early Scottish Church entered upon the monastic period of her history, of which the first and the greatest light was Columba, Apostle of the northern Picts.

The monastery of Iona, where Columba settled in 563, and whence he carried on his work of evangelizing the mainland of Scotland for thirty-four years, was, under him and his successors in the abbatial dignity, considered the mother-house of all monasteries founded by him in Scotland and in Ireland.

The chief physical feature of the country is its mountainous character, there being no extensive areas of level ground, as in England; and only about a quarter of the total acreage is cultivated.

The principal chain of mountains is the Grampian range, and the highest individual hill Ben Nevis (4406 feet).

The part of Scotland lying beyond the Firths of Forth and Clyde was known to the Romans as Caledonia.

The Caledonians came later to be called Picts, and the country, after them, Pictland.

Valuable coal fields extend almost uninterruptedly from east to west, on both banks of the Rivers Forth and Clyde.

The climate is considerably colder and (except on parts of the east coast) wetter than that of England.

The history of Scotland is dealt with in the present article chiefly in its ecclesiastical aspect, and as such it naturally falls into three great divisions: I.

The conversion of the country and the prevalence of the Celtic monastic church; II.

Under these three several heads, therefore, the subject will be treated.

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