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Aquinas avoids the difficulties and contradictions of the "two substance " theory and, saving the personality, accounts for the observed facts of the unity of consciousness.

Tolet.),in which " soul " and "body" are referred to as two "substances" (explicable in the light of subsequent definitions only in the hypothesis of abstraction, and as "incomplete" substances), other pronouncements of the Church merely reiterate the doctrine maintained in the School. "; Vienne, 1311-12, "whoever shall hereafter dare to assert, maintain, or pertinaciously hold that the rational or intellectual soul is not per se and essentially the form of the human body, is to be regarded as a heretic "; Decree of Leo X , in V Lateran, Bull "Apostolici Regiminis", 1513, ". To account for the interaction of the two substances—the one "thought", the other "extension"— "Occasionalism" ( Malebranche, Geulincx), "Pre-established Harmony" (Leibniz), and "Reciprocal Influx" (Locke) were imagined.

Thus Lateran in 649 (against the Monothelites ), canon ii, "the Word of God with the flesh assumed by Him and animated with an intellectual principle shall come . The inevitable reaction from the Cartesian division is to be found in the Monism of Spinoza.

This becomes a "living soul " and fashioned to the "image of God " by the inspiration of the "breath of life", which makes man man and differentiates him from the brute. C Scholastic philosophy reaches a conclusion as to the origin of man similar to the teaching of revelation and theology. All things that are, except Himself, exist in virtue of a unique creative act.

B This doctrine is obviously to be looked for in all Catholic theology. As to the mode of creation, there would seem to be two possible alternatives. 2, ad 2um), a succession of preparatory forms preceded information by the rational soul, it nevertheless follows necessarily from the established principles of Scholasticism that this, not only in the case of the first man, but of all men, must be produced in being by a special creative act.

The complete argument may be found in the "Contra Gentiles " of St. Two accounts of his origin are given in the Old Testament.

On the sixth and last day of the creation " God created man to his own image: to the image of God he created him" ( Genesis ); and "the Lord God formed man of the slime of the earth: and breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living soul " (Gem, ii, 7; so Ecclus., xvii, 1: " God created man of the earth, and made him after his own image").

(Anglo-Saxon man =a person, human being; supposed root man =to think; German, Mann , Mensch ).

According to the common definition of the School, Man is a rational animal.

God's intrinsic perfection is not increased by creation, but extrinsically He becomes known and praised, or glorified by the creatures He endows with intelligence.

A secondary natural end of man is the attainment of his own beatitude, the complete and hierarchic perfection of his nature by the exercise of its faculties in the order which reason prescribes to the will, and this by the observance of the moral law.

The origin of man by creation (as opposed to emanative and evolutionistic Pantheism ) is asserted in the Church's dogmas and definitions. brought forth out of nothing the spiritual and corporeal creation, that, is the angelic world and the universe, and afterwards man, forming as it were one composite out of spirit and body"), in the writings of the Fathers and theologians the same account is given. Clement of Alexandria and Origen defend the theory of creation against Stoics and neo-Platonists. Augustine strenuously combats the pagan schools on this point as on that of the nature and immortality of man's soul. So again the "Contra Gentiles ", II (on creatures), especially from xlvi onwards, deals with the subject from a philosophical standpoint — the distinction between the theological and the philosophical treatment having been carefully drawn in chap. Either the individual composite was created ex nihilo, or a created soul became the informing principle of matter already pre-existing in another determination. The matter that is destined to become what we call man's "body" is naturally prepared, by successive transformations, for the reception of the newly created soul as its determinant principle.

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